Orchids

Has anyone had success growing Lepanthes in micropropagation?

We are looking to propagate seeds from several Lapanthes species via micropropagation - if anyone has experience and protocols we would appreciate hearing from you.  We are working with several species, listed below, but we are looking for general information also.  

Lepanthes eltoroensis

Lepanthes rupestris

Lepanthes woodburyana

Thank you! 

Has anyone grown Goodyera seedlings in a greenhouse environment?

We germinated seeds of Goodyera in tissue culture with great success. Once they had 3 to 4 leaves in a test tube, we planted them in the greenhouse. However, they rapidly declined. We have tried planting them both in our usual potting mix (containing compost and topsoil) and New Zealand sphagnum moss. Any thoughts or suggestions?

Bill Brumback (New England Wildflower Society) and Jay O’Neil (Smithsonian Experimental Research Center)

Seeds of terrestrial orchid species are small and essentially without food reserves, but data on the longevity in the wild of seed of most orchid species is lacking. In October 2003, packets containing seeds of the Federally Threatened orchid, Isotria medeoloides, small whorled pogonia, were buried within a population of this species in New Hampshire. Seeds packets were removed from the soil for testing in 2007 and again in 2017. Seeds were examined for viable embryos and also tested with Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) for viability. Results showed that in 2007 over 50% of the seeds remained viable, and by 2017, more than 13 years after burial, the number had only dropped to 42%. There was no evidence of germination or mycorrhizal association in the buried seeds. These results indicate the potential for a persistent soil seedbank for this orchid species, despite its minute seeds. Protocols for ex situ seed banking of many terrestrial orchids have yet to be developed, but in situ soil seedbank experiments with orchid seeds can give clues to the survival potential of a population in the wild.

Date Recorded: 
Thursday, May 3, 2018

Dennis Whigham and Julianne McGuinness, North American Orchid Conservation Center

The North American Orchid Conservation Center (NAOCC) was developed by the Smithsonian and the U.S. Botanic Garden to conserve the diversity of native orchids in the U.S. and Canada. NAOCC ecologically-based conservation model has three guiding principles: Preservation through seed and fungal banks, Propagation, Education. NAOCC has a growing network of public and private collaborators working to collect and store seeds of native orchids to further the understanding their ecology, preserve genetic diversity, and provide material for use in research that supports propagation and restoration efforts. NAOCC's collaborative model for orchid conservation is guiding a new project to develop best practices and storage protocols for orchid seeds and their fungal associates. To address the urgent need for evidence-based standardized procedures, NAOCC and a number of its collaborators will study storage practices, conduct germination tests, and develop protocols for each species. Chicago Botanic Garden (CBG) took the lead on a grant application to the IMLS for funding for this project. NAOCC joins CBG, the New England Wild Flower Society, Minnesota Landscape Arboretum, Atlanta Botanical Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Illinois College, the Mid-Atlantic Regional Seed Bank, and the Naples Botanical Garden to conduct the first systematic analysis of its kind regarding seed storage practices for North American native orchid species.

Contributing Author(s): 
Date Recorded: 
Friday, May 4, 2018

David Remucal, University of Minnesota Landscape Arboretum

We have been struggling with a propagation database. This has been of particular interest as our orchid conservation program has grown, we have needed a way to track individual maternal sources or populations from seed to potted plant as they go through different treatments and use different media. We began with an excel spreadsheet, but within a couple of years this spreadsheet has become an unwieldy monster. We need to move to a database that can handle our accessions, our inventory, and our propagation efforts, both orchid and non-orchid. We had originally tried to keep the database in-house. To that end, we worked with knowledgeable volunteers to develop an architecture for a database. We are now leaning towards using a pre-built product BUT the process of developing the framework for our own database was extremely informative and useful. It aided us not only in thinking about what we want in a database, but in many other ways, such as how we collect data, how we label our plants, and what we want to say with our data. It was a long process, but I feel we are much better equipped to find the right kind of database for our needs, or adjust the closest product we can find to suit our needs.

Contributing Author(s): 
Date Recorded: 
Friday, May 4, 2018

Peter Zale and Matt Taylor, Longwood Gardens

Several species of Spiranthes native to the Eastern U.S. are considered rare, threatened or endangered by federal and state agencies. Using the Pennsylvania endangered Spiranthes casei as a model species, experiments were designed to determine optimal conditions for in vitro seed germination and seedling development. Seeds were collected in November 2015 from 10 individual plants found in three subpopulations in Elk and McKean counties, Pennsylvania, and air-dried for six weeks. Seeds were surface sterilized for 10 or three minutes in a 10% bleach solution, then plated onto a commercially available terrestrial orchid seed germination media: P723, M551 or K400 (Phytotechnology Labs, Shawnee Mission, KS) with 5 replicate plates. Seed germination ranged from 24 to 60 % and occurred on all three media only with the 3-minute treatment. None of the seeds treated with bleach for 10-minutes germinated and visual inspection revealed badly damaged embryos. After shoot initiation, 150 seedlings were transferred to individual test tubes on one of two media (P723 or P658) and each was given one of the three 24-hour light/dark photoperiod treatments for 10 months: 24/0, 18/6, or 0/24. Seedling survival and growth occurred in all treatments, but seedlings on P723 with the 24/0 or 16/8 photoperiod treatments had a significantly greater fresh weight, leaf length, number of roots and root length than light treatments on P658 and dark treatments. Results indicate Spiranthes seeds can be damaged by extended chemical scarification times and the light is essential for optimal seedling growth.

Contributing Author(s): 
Date Recorded: 
Friday, May 4, 2018